Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

181. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis (Abstract)

Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis Uncomplicated appendicitis may resolve spontaneously or require treatment with antibiotics or appendicectomy. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the outcome of a non-antibiotic management strategy with that of antibiotic therapy in uncomplicated appendicitis.Patients presenting to a university teaching hospital with CT-verified uncomplicated simple appendicitis (appendiceal diameter no larger than 11 mm (...) and without any signs of perforation) were randomized to management with a no-antibiotic regimen with supportive care (intravenous fluids, analgesia and antipyretics as necessary) or a 4-day course of antibiotics with supportive care. The primary endpoint was rate of total treatment failure, defined as initial treatment failure within 1 month and recurrence of appendicitis during the follow-up period.Some 245 patients were randomized within the trial, and followed up for a median of 19 months

2017 EvidenceUpdates

182. [KOKUSAI]Third tripartite meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents posted

the text. Tripartite Meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents In response to the discussions at the G7 summits (in Schloss Elmau and Ise-Shima) on the countermeasures taken against antimicrobial resistant infections, EMA, FDA and PMDA held a tripartite face-to-face meeting. Date Location SUMMARY 1 1-2 September 2016, London At this meeting, in addition to sharing information on current situation regarding the data requirements for the approval of new (...) [KOKUSAI]Third tripartite meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents posted Tripartite Meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents | Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency Please make JavaScript on and see this site. Navigation of each product type Our recommended contents Navigation of each product type Our recommended contents Tripartite Meeting (for Antibacterial Agents) Here begins

2017 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

183. Antimicrobial resistance, trade, food safety and security Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial resistance, trade, food safety and security 29255786 2018 11 13 2352-7714 5 2018 Jun One health (Amsterdam, Netherlands) One Health Antimicrobial resistance, trade, food safety and security. 6-8 10.1016/j.onehlt.2017.11.004 George Anna A eng Editorial 2017 11 28 Netherlands One Health 101660501 2352-7714 2017 11 26 2017 11 27 2017 12 20 6 0 2017 12 20 6 0 2017 12 20 6 1 epublish 29255786 10.1016/j.onehlt.2017.11.004 S2352-7714(17)30059-9 PMC5725214 Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Feb;16(2

2017 One health

184. Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? 29296882 2018 11 13 2473-9529 1 25 2017 Nov 28 Blood advances Blood Adv Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? 2325-2328 10.1182/bloodadvances.2017005108 Shono Yusuke Y 0000-0002-0459-1659 Department of Immunology, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. van den Brink Marcel R M

2017 Blood advances

185. Subtle Microbiome Manipulation Using Probiotics Reduces Antibiotic-Associated Mortality in Fish Full Text available with Trip Pro

Subtle Microbiome Manipulation Using Probiotics Reduces Antibiotic-Associated Mortality in Fish Prophylactic antibiotics in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry are intended to prevent the negative impacts of disease outbreaks. Research in mice and humans suggests that antibiotics may disturb microbiome communities and decrease microbiome-mediated disease resistance, also known as "colonization resistance." If antibiotics impact fish as they do mice and humans, prophylactic (...) administrations on aquaculture farms may increase downstream disease susceptibility in target hosts, despite short-term pathogen control benefits. We tested the effects of antibiotics on mortality after a pathogen challenge in the Poecilia sphenops black molly and subsequently tested if probiotic inoculations could reverse any antibiotic-induced losses of disease resistance. We found that antibiotic treatment significantly increased fish mortality. We further found that our two candidate probiotic bacterial

2017 mSystems

186. Antibiotic prophylaxis for episiotomy repair following vaginal birth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(e.g. endometritis) were reported in either the antibiotic or control group.The trial did not report on any of the secondary outcomes of interest for this review, including severe maternal infectious morbidity, discomfort or pain at the episiotomy wound site, sexual function postpartum, adverse effects of antibiotics, costs of care, women's satisfaction with care, and individual antimicrobial resistance.There was insufficient evidence to assess the clinical benefits or harms of routine antibiotic (...) Antibiotic prophylaxis for episiotomy repair following vaginal birth. Bacterial infections occurring during labour, childbirth, and the puerperium may be associated with considerable maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic prophylaxis might reduce wound infection incidence after an episiotomy, particularly in situations associated with a higher risk of postpartum perineal infection, such as midline episiotomy, extension of the incision, or in settings where the baseline risk

2017 Cochrane

187. Sinusitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

Background 5 Recommendations 6 1.1 Managing acute sinusitis 6 1.2 Choice of antibiotic 8 1.3 Self-care 10 Symptoms and signs 12 Common symptoms and signs 12 Factors that might make a bacterial cause more likely 12 Summary of the evidence 13 Self-care 13 Nasal corticosteroids 14 No antibiotic 15 Back-up antibiotics 17 Choice of antibiotic 18 Antibiotic course length 21 Other considerations 23 Medicines adherence 23 Resource implications 23 Sinusitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing (NG79) © NICE 2019 (...) . All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 24Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute sinusitis. It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance. Acute sinusitis is usually caused by a virus, lasts for about 2 to 3 weeks, and most people get better without antibiotics. Withholding antibiotics rarely leads to complications. See a 2-page visual

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

188. Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/avibactam

in combination with an antibacterial agent active against gram-positive pathogens when these are known or suspected to be contributing to the infectious process. d The total duration shown may include intravenous ceftazidime/avibactam followed by appropriate oral therapy. e There is very limited experience with the use of ceftazidime/avibactam for more than 14 days. Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/avibactam (ES16) © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk (...) Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/avibactam Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/ Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/ a avibactam vibactam Evidence summary Published: 13 November 2017 nice.org.uk/guidance/es16 pathways Ov Overview erview This evidence summary outlines the best available evidence for a new intravenous antimicrobial, ceftazidime/avibactam (Zavicefta). It is indicated for treating: complicated intra-abdominal infections complicated urinary tract infections, including

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

189. Antimicrobial resistance and universal health coverage Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial resistance and universal health coverage The WHO launched a Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in 2015. World leaders in the G7, G20 and the UN General Assembly have declared AMR to be a global crisis. World leaders have also adopted universal health coverage (UHC) as a key target under the sustainable development goals. This paper argues that neither initiative is likely to succeed in isolation from the other and that the policy goals should be to both provide (...) access to appropriate antimicrobial treatment and reduce the risk of the emergence and spread of resistance by taking a systems approach. It focuses on outpatient treatment of human infections and identifies a number of interventions that would be needed to achieve these policy goals. It then shows how a strategy for achieving key attributes of a health system for UHC can take into account the need to address AMR as part of a UHC strategy in any country. It concludes with a list of recommended

2017 BMJ global health

190. Explaining family physicians’ beliefs about antibiotic prescription Full Text available with Trip Pro

Explaining family physicians’ beliefs about antibiotic prescription Antibiotics are among those drugs prescribed abundantly in hospitals due to their high efficiency. However, excessive, non-logical and unnecessary use of antibiotics regardless of physicians' recommendations is considered as a challenge.The aim of this study was to explain family physicians' beliefs about antibiotic prescription in Ahvaz.This study is part of a content-analysis qualitative research conducted in Ahvaz in 2016 (...) composed of 20 subcategories. They were 1) expected outcomes of antibiotics (perceived pros and cons); 2) perceived pressure to follow others' opinions; 3) the level of access to antibiotics; and 4) individual's perception for prescription.Findings of this study showed that various factors affect physicians' decisions to prescribe antibiotics and it is emphasized to consider these factors.

2017 Electronic physician

191. Topical antimicrobial agents for pediatric burns Full Text available with Trip Pro

Topical antimicrobial agents for pediatric burns While topical antimicrobial agents are indicated for most if not all burn wounds, the choice of a topical agent must consider many factors such as the wound depth, anticipated time to healing, need for surgical intervention, and the known cytotoxicity of the agent. Especially relevant to the pediatric burn patient are the antimicrobial agent's properties related to causing pain or irritation and the required frequency of application and dressings (...) . This article will discuss the general principles surrounding the use of topical antimicrobials on burn wounds and will review the most common agents currently in use.

2017 Burns & trauma

192. Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months. Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children (...) a significant burden on both patients and their families, including substantial expense, loss of routine, and decrease in quality of life. By reducing the duration of hospital treatment, healthcare burdens could potentially be reduced and treatment compliance may improve.This is an update of a review published in 2015.To evaluate the efficacy of short-course (two to three days) versus long-course (five days) intravenous therapy (alone or in combination with oral antibiotics) with the same antibiotic

2017 Cochrane

193. Effects of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care 12 Months After Stopping Interventions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care 12 Months After Stopping Interventions 29049577 2017 10 25 2018 11 13 1538-3598 318 14 2017 10 10 JAMA JAMA Effects of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care 12 Months After Stopping Interventions. 1391-1392 10.1001/jama.2017.11152 Linder Jeffrey A JA Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Meeker Daniella D University of Southern

2017 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

194. Deconstructing a multiple antibiotic resistance regulation through the quantification of its input function Full Text available with Trip Pro

Deconstructing a multiple antibiotic resistance regulation through the quantification of its input function Many essential bacterial responses present complex transcriptional regulation of gene expression. To what extent can the study of these responses substantiate the logic of their regulation? Here, we show how the input function of the genes constituting the response, i.e., the information of how their transcription rates change as function of the signals acting on the regulators, can serve (...) as a quantitative tool to deconstruct the corresponding regulatory logic. To demonstrate this approach, we consider the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) response in Escherichia coli. By characterizing the input function of its representative genes in wild-type and mutant bacteria, we recognize a dual autoregulation motif as main determinant of the response, which is further adjusted by the interplay with other regulators. We show that basic attributes, like its reaction to a wide range of stress or its

2017 NPJ systems biology and applications

195. Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for total hip arthroplasty and other orthopedic indications

. Controversy: Controversial issues related to the clinical use of ABCs include the safety and effectiveness of ABCs compared with other fixation methods, optimal antibiotic choice and dose, optimal cement preparation technique, costeffectiveness of ABCs, the appropriate use of ABC in a prophylactic setting, antimicrobial resistance, and patient selection (i.e., which patients might benefit the most from the treatment). Relevant Questions: Is ABC effective in preventing infection in primary hip or shoulder (...) Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for total hip arthroplasty and other orthopedic indications Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for total hip arthroplasty and other orthopedic indications Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for total hip arthroplasty and other orthopedic indications HAYES, Inc Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation HAYES, Inc

2017 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

196. Dental procedures, antibiotic prophylaxis, and endocarditis among people with prosthetic heart valves: nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dental procedures, antibiotic prophylaxis, and endocarditis among people with prosthetic heart valves: nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study. Objective To assess the relation between invasive dental procedures and infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci among people with prosthetic heart valves.Design Nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study.Setting French national health insurance administrative data linked with the national (...) procedure. Among the 396 615 dental procedures performed, 103 463 (26.0%) were invasive and therefore presented an indication for antibiotic prophylaxis, which was performed in 52 280 (50.1%). With a median follow-up of 1.7 years, 267 people developed infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci (incidence rate 93.7 per 100 000 person years, 95% confidence interval 82.4 to 104.9). Compared with non-exposure periods, no statistically significant increased rate of oral streptococcal infective

2017 BMJ

197. Nebulized Versus IV Amikacin as Adjunctive Antibiotic for Hospital and Ventilator-Acquired Pneumonia Postcardiac Surgeries: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Abstract)

Nebulized Versus IV Amikacin as Adjunctive Antibiotic for Hospital and Ventilator-Acquired Pneumonia Postcardiac Surgeries: A Randomized Controlled Trial Nebulized antibiotics offer high efficacy due to significant local concentrations and safety with minimal blood levels. This study evaluates the efficacy and nephrotoxicity of nebulized versus IV amikacin in postcardiothoracic surgical patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Gram- negative bacilli.Prospective

2017 EvidenceUpdates

198. Computational approaches to the in vitro antibacterial activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss against gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli: focus on ribosome recycling factor Full Text available with Trip Pro

Computational approaches to the in vitro antibacterial activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss against gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli: focus on ribosome recycling factor Persian shallot, Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (AH), is an Iranian native medicinal plant belongs to Alliaceae family. Here, we investigated in vitro antibacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract derived from bulbs of AH. We also employed in silico molecular docking to decipher mechanisms of its antibacterial effects (...) of alliogenin (-11.6), gitogenin (-11.6), kaempferol (-10.2), linoleic acid (-8.4), oleic acid (-8.0), palmitic acid (-7.4), palmitoleic acid (-8.4), quercetin (-10.8), and shallomin (-13.4) with RRF were comparable to that of gentamicin (-12.6). In sum, hydro-alcoholic extract of bulbs of AH could be considered as a commercial phytobiotics if in-depth antibacterial assays employed in future studies. More interestingly, shallomin showed more promising binding affinity with RRF and can be considered as lead

2017 In silico pharmacology

199. Emerging Microtechnologies and Automated Systems for Rapid Bacterial Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emerging Microtechnologies and Automated Systems for Rapid Bacterial Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Rapid bacterial identification (ID) and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are in great demand due to the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. Conventional culture-based AST methods suffer from a long turnaround time. By necessity, physicians often have to treat patients empirically with antibiotics, which has led to an inappropriate use of antibiotics, an elevated (...) mortality rate and healthcare costs, and antibiotic resistance. Recent advances in miniaturization and automation provide promising solutions for rapid bacterial ID/AST profiling, which will potentially make a significant impact in the clinical management of infectious diseases and antibiotic stewardship in the coming years. In this review, we summarize and analyze representative emerging micro- and nanotechnologies, as well as automated systems for bacterial ID/AST, including both phenotypic (e.g

2017 SLAS technology

200. Systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds. Malignant wounds are a devastating complication of cancer. They usually develop in the last six months of life, in the breast, chest wall or head and neck regions. They are very difficult to treat successfully, and the commonly associated symptoms of pain, exudate, malodour, and the risk of haemorrhage are extremely distressing for those with advanced cancer. Treatment and care of malignant wounds is primarily palliative, and focuses (...) on alleviating pain, controlling infection and odour from the wound, managing exudate and protecting the surrounding skin from further deterioration. In malignant wounds, with tissue degradation and death, there is proliferation of both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The aim of antibiotic therapy is to successfully eliminate these bacteria, reduce associated symptoms, such as odour, and promote wound healing.To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds.We searched

2017 Cochrane