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Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics
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Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.
Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.
Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.
Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.
Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.
Decontamination Strategies and Bloodstream Infections With Antibiotic-Resistant Microorganisms in Ventilated Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash, selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD), and selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on patient outcomes in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance are unknown.To determine associations between CHX 2%, SOD, and SDD and the occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infections (...) with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) and 28-day mortality in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance.Randomized trial conducted from December 1, 2013, to May 31, 2017, in 13 European ICUs where at least 5% of bloodstream infections are caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Patients with anticipated mechanical ventilation of more than 24 hours were eligible. The final date of follow-up was September 20, 2017.Standard care was daily CHX 2
Isolation and genomic characterization of six endophytic bacteria isolated from Saccharum sp (sugarcane): Insights into antibiotic, secondary metabolite and quorum sensing metabolism Six endophytic bacteria were isolated from Saccharum sp (sugarcane) grown in the parish of Westmoreland on the island of Jamaica located in the West Indies. Whole genome sequence and annotation of the six bacteria show that three were from the genus Pseudomonas and the other three were from the genera Pantoea (...) , Pseudocitrobacter, and Enterobacter. A scan of each genome using the antibiotics and secondary metabolite analysis shell (antiSMASH4.0) webserver showed evidence that the bacteria were able to produce a variety of secondary metabolites. In addition, we were able to show that one of the organisms, Enterobacter sp RIT418 produces N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which is indicative of cell-cell communication via quorum sensing (QS).
adverse effects, as well as concerns with antimicrobial resistance, cost considerations, and the physiologic importance to the host of maintaining equilibrium in the diversity and density of the host microbiome, the decision to administer prophylaxis requires balancing benefits and harms. The previous version of this guideline recommended antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis for higher-risk patients and that there was not a high enough baseline risk of FN and infection-related mortality in lower (...) contained within this guideline can be found in the Bottom Line box. GUIDELINE QUESTIONS Section: This clinical practice guideline addresses the following clinical questions: Does antibacterial prophylaxis with a fluoroquinolone, compared with placebo, no intervention, or another class of antibiotic reduce the incidence of and mortality related to FN? Does antifungal (antiyeast or antimold) prophylaxis with an oral triazole or parenteral echinocandin, compared with no prophylaxis or another treatment
Five-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis in the APPAC Randomized Clinical Trial. Short-term results support antibiotics as an alternative to surgery for treating uncomplicated acute appendicitis, but long-term outcomes are not known.To determine the late recurrence rate of appendicitis after antibiotic therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis.Five-year observational follow-up of patients in the Appendicitis Acuta (APPAC) multicenter (...) randomized clinical trial comparing appendectomy with antibiotic therapy, in which 530 patients aged 18 to 60 years with computed tomography-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis were randomized to undergo an appendectomy (n = 273) or receive antibiotic therapy (n = 257). The initial trial was conducted from November 2009 to June 2012 in Finland; last follow-up was September 6, 2017. This current analysis focused on assessing the 5-year outcomes for the group of patients treated with antibiotics
Bronchoscopy-guided antimicrobial therapy for cystic fibrosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of lower respiratory tract infections are the mainstay of management of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. When sputum samples are unavailable, treatment relies mainly on cultures from oropharyngeal specimens; however, there are concerns regarding the sensitivity of these to identify lower respiratory organisms.Bronchoscopy and related procedures (including bronchoalveolar lavage) though invasive, allow (...) the collection of lower respiratory specimens from non-sputum producers. Cultures of bronchoscopic specimens provide a higher yield of organisms compared to those from oropharyngeal specimens. Regular use of bronchoscopy and related procedures may help in a more accurate diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections and guide the selection of antimicrobials, which may lead to clinical benefits.This is an update of a previous review.To evaluate the use of bronchoscopy-guided antimicrobial therapy
those with PTB will not-has minimal evidence base for such a widely used intervention. Numerous potential causes of misclassification include bacterial super-infection of active PTB, placebo effect, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The main aim of this systematic review is to collate available evidence on the performance of trial-of-antibiotics as a diagnostic test and to explore the timing, interpretation, and decision-making process.We will search MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health using (...) Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review. Suboptimal diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) drives use of 'trial-of-antibiotics (non-tuberculosis)' in an attempt to distinguish PTB patients from those with bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The underlying assumption-that patients with LRTI will report 'response' to broad-spectrum antibiotics, while
Resolution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with a PROSE device for enhanced targeted antibiotic delivery To report the resolution of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with use of a prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) device for enhanced targeted delivery of moxifloxiacin.A 62-year-old female presented with a 3-day history of pain, photophobia, and declining vision in left eye. The patient had a 2-year history of binocular (...) therapy. Frequent dosing to the PROSE reservoir is likely to increase fluoroquinolone bioavailability and may represent a valuable approach to overcome antibiotic resistance.
Short-course versus long-course therapy of the same antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a lung infection that can be acquired during day-to-day activities in the community (not while receiving care in a hospital). Community-acquired pneumonia poses a significant public health burden in terms of mortality, morbidity, and costs. Shorter antibiotic courses for CAP may limit treatment costs and adverse effects (...) , but the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment is uncertain.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-course versus longer-course treatment with the same antibiotic at the same daily dosage for CAP in non-hospitalised adolescents and adults (outpatients). We planned to investigate non-inferiority of short-course versus longer-term course treatment for efficacy outcomes, and superiority of short-course treatment for safety outcomes.We searched CENTRAL, which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory
Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is a widely used treatment modality for early acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A preoperative risk score was previously designed for predicting DAIR failure, consisting of chronic renal failure (K), liver cirrhosis (L), index surgery (I), cemented prosthesis (C), and C (...) -reactive protein >115 mg/L (KLIC). The aim of this study was to validate the KLIC score in an external cohort.We retrospectively evaluated patients with early acute PJI treated with DAIR between 2006 and 2016 in 3 Dutch hospitals. Early acute PJI was defined as <21 days of symptoms and DAIR performed within 90 days after index surgery. Failure was defined as the need for (1) second DAIR, (2) implant removal, (3) suppressive antimicrobial treatment, or (4) infection-related death within 60 days after
Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis. Patients with infective endocarditis on the left side of the heart are typically treated with intravenous antibiotic agents for up to 6 weeks. Whether a shift from intravenous to oral antibiotics once the patient is in stable condition would result in efficacy and safety similar to those with continued intravenous treatment is unknown.In a randomized, noninferiority, multicenter trial, we assigned 400 adults in stable (...) condition who had endocarditis on the left side of the heart caused by streptococcus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative staphylococci and who were being treated with intravenous antibiotics to continue intravenous treatment (199 patients) or to switch to oral antibiotic treatment (201 patients). In all patients, antibiotic treatment was administered intravenously for at least 10 days. If feasible, patients in the orally treated group were discharged to outpatient
Straw Wine Melanoidins as Potential Multifunctional Agents: Insight into Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibition Effects Numerous studies provide robust evidence for a protective effect of red wine against many diseases. This bioactivity has been mainly associated with phenolic fractions of wines. However, the health effects of melanoidins in red sweet wines has been ignored. The goal of the present work was to unravel the antioxidant, antimicrobial (...) , and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of straw sweet wine melanoidins. Results demonstrated that melanoidins have a potential antioxidant activity, determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antimicrobial activity of melanoidins was also tested against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isolated melanoidins against three bacterial strains
. But if you still have questions please contact us via email@example.com AntibioticsAntibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading. Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed (...) Antibiotics Top results for antibiotics - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Find evidence fast ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 or #4
Trends in outpatient antibiotic use and prescribing practice among US older adults, 2011-15: observational study. To identify temporal trends in outpatient antibiotic use and antibiotic prescribing practice among older adults in a high income country.Observational study using United States Medicare administrative claims in 2011-15.Medicare, a US national healthcare program for which 98% of older adults are eligible.4.5 million fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years old (...) and older.Overall rates of antibiotic prescription claims, rates of potentially appropriate and inappropriate prescribing, rates for each of the most frequently prescribed antibiotics, and rates of antibiotic claims associated with specific diagnoses. Trends in antibiotic use were estimated by multivariable regression adjusting for beneficiaries' demographic and clinical covariates.The number of antibiotic claims fell from 1364.7 to 1309.3 claims per 1000 beneficiaries per year in 2011-14 (adjusted reduction
Responses of the Human Gut Escherichia coli Population to Pathogen and Antibiotic Disturbances Studies of Escherichia coli in the human gastrointestinal tract have focused on pathogens, such as diarrhea-causing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), while overlooking the resident, nonpathogenic E. coli community. Relatively few genomes of nonpathogenic E. coli strains are available for comparative genomic analysis, and the ecology of these strains is poorly understood. This study examined (...) the diversity and dynamics of resident human gastrointestinal E. coli communities in the face of the ecological challenges presented by pathogen (ETEC) challenge, as well as of antibiotic treatment. Whole-genome sequences obtained from E. coli isolates from before, during, and after ETEC challenge were used in phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses to examine the diversity of the resident E. coli communities, as well as the dynamics of the challenge strain, H10407, a well-studied ETEC strain
Probiotics to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients Receiving Antibiotics. In adults and children prescribed antibiotics, is co-administration of a probiotic associated with a lower risk of symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection without an increase in adverse events?Moderate-quality evidence suggests that probiotics are associated with a lower risk of C difficile infection and very low-quality evidence suggests that probiotics are associated with fewer adverse events vs
Evolutionary conservation of the antimicrobial function of mucus: a first defence against infection Mucus layers often provide a unique and multi-functional hydrogel interface between the epithelial cells of organisms and their external environment. Mucus has exceptional properties including elasticity, changeable rheology and an ability to self-repair by re-annealing, and is therefore an ideal medium for trapping and immobilising pathogens and serving as a barrier to microbial infection (...) are important to the goal of developing new antimicrobial strategies, they remain relatively poorly understood. This review summarises the physicochemical properties and evolutionary importance of mucus, which make it so successful in the prevention of bacterial infection. In addition, the strategies developed by bacteria to counteract the mucus layer are also explored.
Association Between Use of Acid-Suppressive Medications and Antibiotics During Infancy and Allergic Diseases in Early Childhood Allergic diseases are prevalent in childhood. Early exposure to medications that can alter the microbiome, including acid-suppressive medications and antibiotics, may influence the likelihood of allergy.To determine whether there is an association between the use of acid-suppressive medications or antibiotics in the first 6 months of infancy and development of allergic (...) [49.9%] girls) included for analysis, 60 209 (7.6%) were prescribed an H2RA, 13 687 (1.7%) were prescribed a PPI, and 131 708 (16.6%) were prescribed an antibiotic during the first 6 months of life. Data for each child were available for a median of 4.6 years. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) in children prescribed H2RAs and PPIs, respectively, were 2.18 (95% CI, 2.04-2.33) and 2.59 (95% CI, 2.25-3.00) for food allergy, 1.70 (95% CI, 1.60-1.80) and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.56-2.17) for medication allergy, 1.51
Characterization of Wild and Captive Baboon Gut Microbiota and Their Antibiotic Resistomes Environmental microbes have harbored the capacity for antibiotic production for millions of years, spanning the evolution of humans and other vertebrates. However, the industrial-scale use of antibiotics in clinical and agricultural practice over the past century has led to a substantial increase in exposure of these agents to human and environmental microbiota. This perturbation is predicted to alter (...) the ecology of microbial communities and to promote the evolution and transfer of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. We studied wild and captive baboon populations to understand the effects of exposure to humans and human activities (e.g., antibiotic therapy) on the composition of the primate fecal microbiota and the antibiotic-resistant genes that it collectively harbors (the "resistome"). Using a culture-independent metagenomic approach, we identified functional antibiotic resistance genes in the gut