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Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics
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Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.
Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.
Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.
Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.
Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.
Oral versus inhaled antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by a recurrent cycle of respiratory bacterial infections associated with cough, sputum production and impaired quality of life. Antibiotics are the main therapeutic option for managing bronchiectasis exacerbations. Evidence suggests that inhaled antibiotics may be associated with more effective eradication of infective organisms and a lower risk of developing antibiotic resistance (...) when compared with orally administered antibiotics. However, it is currently unclear whether antibiotics are more effective when administered orally or by inhalation.To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of oral versus inhaled antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with bronchiectasis.We identified studies through searches of the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialised Register (CAGR), which is maintained by the Information Specialist for the group. The Register contains trial
The antimicrobial activity of probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli isolated from different natural sources against hemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 Diarrheal diseases have been seen in all geographical areas throughout the world. Therefore, considering treatment, could be deemed a necessary action.The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of probiotic bacterial strains isolated from different natural sources against 2 pathotypes of pathogenic E. coli.This cross-sectional study (...) of Martyr Chamran University of Ahvaz was carried out from December 2013 to July 2014. A total of 13 probiotic colonies isolated from 20 samples of traditional dairy products including (yogurt, cheese, milk) and 20 samples of vegetables including carrots and cabbages (red and white) of which 5 isolates were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial effect against 2 Escherichia coli pathotypes, randomly. Antimicrobial effect was evaluated using two methods: disk diffusion and well diffusion tests
Antibiotic resistance patterns of urinary tract pathogens in Turkish children Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential for evidence- based empirical antibiotic prescribing. We aimed to investigate the distribution and changes in causative agents of urinary tract infections in children and the resistance rates, and to recommend the most appropriate antibiotics.In this retrospective study, we evaluated causative agents and antimicrobial resistance in urine isolates from
Antibiotics at the time of removal of central venous catheter to reduce morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Late-onset sepsis is associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity in newborn infants, in addition to poorer long-term developmental outcomes and increased length of stay and hospital costs. Central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) is the most common cause of late-onset sepsis in hospitalised infants, and prevention of CLABSI is a key objective (...) in neonatal care. Increased frequency of CLABSI around the time of removal of central venous catheters (CVCs) has been reported, and use of antibiotics at the time of removal may reduce the incidence and impact of late-onset sepsis in vulnerable newborn infants.To determine the efficacy and safety of giving antibiotics at the time of removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) for reduction of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants, in particular effects on late-onset sepsis.We used the standard search
Epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant wound infections from six countries in Africa Little is known about the antimicrobial susceptibility of common bacteria responsible for wound infections from many countries in sub-Saharan Africa.We performed a retrospective review of microbial isolates collected based on clinical suspicion of wound infection between 2004 and 2016 from Mercy Ships, a non-governmental organisation operating a single mobile surgical unit in Benin, Congo, Liberia, Madagascar (...) surveillance should be a priority and local antimicrobial resistance profiles should be used to guide empiric antibiotic selection.
Procalcitonin Testing to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Is the use of procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic decisions in patients with acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with usual care?Among patients with varying types and severity of acute respiratory infection, using procalcitonin to guide decisions about antibiotics is associated with lower rates of antibiotic exposure (...) , antibiotic-related adverse effects, and mortality.
injections performed were 3.4 per patient. The most common organisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 6/14 (42.8%), Staphylococcus aureus in 5/14 (35.7%), Streptococcus sp in 2/14 (14.2%) and Bacillus sp in 1/14 (7.14%). In addition to vancomycin, resistance to multiple drugs (three or more groups of antibiotics) was found in all 14 cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed susceptibility to amikacin in 7/14 (50.0%), gatifloxacin in 6/14 (42.8%), moxifloxacin in 3/13 (23.0 (...) %), cefazoline in 5/14 (35.7%), cefuroxime in 3/14 (21.4%), ciprofloxacin in 2/14 (14.2%) and linezolid in 5/5 (100%). The mean duration of follow-up was 30.7 weeks (6 weeks-90 weeks). At last follow-up, visual acuity (VA) of 20/200 or better was recorded in 7/14 (50%) and VA < 5/200 occurred in 7/14 (50%).Antimicrobial susceptibility testing may help in selection of suitable antimicrobial agents for repeat intravitreal injection. Inspite of retreatment with intravitreal antibiotics, these patients generally
Precision antimicrobial therapeutics: the path of least resistance? The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has led to a decline in the efficacy of traditional antimicrobial therapy. The rise in resistance has been driven by widespread use, and in some cases misuse, of antibacterial agents in treating a variety of infections. A growing body of research has begun to elucidate the harmful effects of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy on the beneficial host microbiota. To combat these threats (...) with Crohn's disease (CD), in mouse models. While not without its challenges, antibiotic-sparing therapeutic approaches hold great promise in a variety of disease systems, including UTI, CD, otitis media (OM), and others. In this perspective we highlight the benefits, progress, and roadblocks to the development of precision antimicrobial therapeutics.
Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics at the An-Najah National University Hospital: a cross-sectional study. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered the most important determinant of treatment failure. Monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to common antibiotics is therefore of special importance for clinicians. The frequency of resistance to antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori isolates is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of H pylori (...) %). Metronidazole and clarithromycin were the least effective drugs, with resistance rates of 100% and 47%, respectively.H pylori isolates from the Palestinian patients included in this study were highly resistant to the traditional first-line antibiotics clarithromycin and metronidazole. However, fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin are still effective antimicrobial choices. This could be the result of the unjustified wide use of antibiotics in the Palestinian community and the use of clarithromycin-based therapy
Antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnancy. Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and is a major public health challenge today. N gonorrhoeae can be transmitted from the mother's genital tract to the newborn during birth, and can cause gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum as well as systemic neonatal infections. It can also cause endometritis and pelvic sepsis in the mother. This review updates and replaces an earlier Cochrane Review (...) on antibiotics for treating this infectious condition.To assess the clinical effectiveness and harms of antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnant women.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2017), LILACS database (1982 to April 5, 2017), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; April 5, 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov (April 5, 2017), the ISRCTN Registry (April 5, 2017), and Epistemonikos (April 5, 2017). We also searched reference lists
[Generation of Antibiotic Tolerant Bacterial Persisters in Immunocompromized Patients with Hematologic and Malignant Diseases: A New Problem of Health-Care Associated Infections]. Antibiotic tolerance (AT) represents one of the causes of the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance that allows escape of non-replicating metabolically inert microorganisms (persisters) from any antibiotics attack because molecular targets of antibiotics are lacking thereby creating the potential for chronic (...) infections.Determine the heterogeneity of the strains of opportunistic pathogens E. coli and P. aeruginosa isolates from children with hematologic malignancies containing bacterial persisters that cause the AT phenomenon.Children with hematological malignancies were divided into 2 groups according to the intensity of antibiotic treatment of infectious complications. Ciprofloxacin-induced persisters were quantitatively determined in the biological materials obtained from sick children.Within the clinical isolates
Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea in Children Emergency Medicine > Journal Club > Archive > November 2017 Toggle navigation November 2017 Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea in Children Vignette You are working in the SLCH ED. An 18-month-old unvaccinated patient has right ear pain and fever for 4 days, along with a runny nose and irritability. You look in her ear and see a bulging red eardrum. You are a superior clinician so you pull out your insufflator (...) and find that the eardrum has limited mobility, especially compared to the other side. with a diagnosis of acute otitis media in hand, you decide to prescribe high-dose amoxicillin for the child, based on the . However, as you start to explain this to the parents, they sound very hesitant because they have had other children who "always" get diarrhea when given antibiotics. They also recently had an elderly relative who was ill due to C. diff and they are scared to give their daughter antibiotics
Systemic use of antibiotics and risk of diabetes in adults: A nested case-control study of Alberta`s Tomorrow Project Previous observational studies using administrative health records have suggested an increased risk of diabetes with use of antibiotics. However, unmeasured confounding factors may explain these results. This study characterized the association between systemic use of antibiotics and risk of diabetes in a cohort of adults in Canada, accounting for both clinical and self-reported (...) disease risk factors.In this nested case-control study, we used data from Alberta's Tomorrow Project (ATP), a longitudinal cohort study in Canada, and the linked administrative health records (2000-2015). Incident cases of diabetes were matched with up to 8 age and sex-matched controls per case. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between antibiotic exposures and incident diabetes after sequentially adjusting for important clinical and lifestyle factors.This study
Machine Learning Leveraging Genomes from Metagenomes Identifies Influential Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Infant Gut Microbiome Antibiotic resistance in pathogens is extensively studied, and yet little is known about how antibiotic resistance genes of typical gut bacteria influence microbiome dynamics. Here, we leveraged genomes from metagenomes to investigate how genes of the premature infant gut resistome correspond to the ability of bacteria to survive under certain environmental (...) conditions, even in the absence of antibiotic therapy. Using a machine learning approach, we identified genes that are predictive of an organism's direction of change in relative abundance after administration of vancomycin and cephalosporin antibiotics. The most accurate results were obtained by reducing annotated genomic data to five principal components classified by boosted decision trees. Among the genes involved in predicting whether an organism increased in relative abundance after treatment
The Effect of Emphasizing Patient, Societal, and Institutional Harms of Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing on Physician Support of Financial Penalties: A Randomized Trial. 28631001 2018 01 08 2018 01 08 1539-3704 167 3 2017 08 01 Annals of internal medicine Ann. Intern. Med. The Effect of Emphasizing Patient, Societal, and Institutional Harms of Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing on Physician Support of Financial Penalties: A Randomized Trial. 215-216 10.7326/L17-0102 Liao Joshua M JM From
Clinical features, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes of patients with culture positive endophthalmitis after penetrating keratoplasty To report the clinical features organisms and treatment outcomes in patients with endophthalmitis after penetrating keratoplasty (PK).Retrospective noncomparative case series.Eleven eyes of 11 patients with culture positive endophthalmitis after PK were included. The time to diagnosis of endophthalmitis from last PK was less than 1 week in 3