Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

161. Procalcitonin and Antibiotics for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

Procalcitonin and Antibiotics for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Procalcitonin and Antiobiotics for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections | Emergency Medicine | Washington University in St. Louis Open Menu Back Close Menu Search for: Loading... Welcome Sections Education Fellowships Alumni Research ECRC Journal Club Events Lewis Health Policy Symposia Jermyn Lectures Open Search Article 2: Schuetz P, Wirz Y, Sager R, et al. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute (...) respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct 12;10:CD007498. Article 3: Huang DT, Yealy DM, Filbin MR, et al: ProACT Investigators. Procalcitonin-Guided Use of Antibiotics for Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. N. Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 19;379(3): 236-249 Article 4: Walsh EE, Swinburne AJ, Becker KL, et al. Can serum procalcitonin levels help interpret indeterminate chest radiographs in patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness? J Hosp Med. 2013 Feb;8(2): 61-7 Bottom Line

2018 Washington University Emergency Medicine Journal Club

162. Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Review of Guidelines

Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Review of Guidelines Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Review of Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Review of Guidelines Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Review of Guidelines Last updated: September 6, 2018 (...) Project Number: RC1013-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention, management, and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and C. difficile infection? Key Message One guideline recommended the use of probiotics for treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea (varying strength of recommendation depending on the product).Four guidelines did

2018 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

163. Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness

Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Review of Clinical (...) Effectiveness Last updated: September 20, 2018 Project Number: RC1022-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of concurrent probiotic and antibiotic use for preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and C.difficile infection? What is the clinical effectiveness of probiotics for treating and managing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and C.difficile infection? Key Message No clear patterns have emerged

2018 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

164. Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Last updated: October (...) 4, 2018 Project Number: RA0968-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Reference List Result type: Report Question What is the clinical evidence regarding the use of topical antibiotics for the treatment of treatment-resistant impetigo? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the treatment of treatment resistant impetigo? Key Message One systematic review with meta-analyses, one non-randomized study, and one evidence-based guideline were identified regarding the clinical

2018 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

165. Antimicrobial Lubricant Did Not Reduce Infection Rate in Transrectal Biopsy Patients in a Large Randomized Trial Due to Low Complication Rates. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial Lubricant Did Not Reduce Infection Rate in Transrectal Biopsy Patients in a Large Randomized Trial Due to Low Complication Rates. Transrectal prostate biopsy (pbx) is the most frequent outpatient procedure in the urological field. Septic complications are a major health issue.To evaluate complication rates with or without an antimicrobial lubricant.A total of 1000 patients received pbx between 2013 and 2015. Information about complications was collected by a 3-wk questionnaire (...) . Return rate was 73.2% (n=732).Randomization for pbx with the instillation of an antimicrobial lubricant (intervention group, n=385) or the standard lubricant (control group, n=347) was performed.Multivariable analyses assessed the association between infectious complications at biopsy and use of an antimicrobial lubricant, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), history of urogenitourinary infections, and several other confounders.The use of an antimicrobial lubricant did not reduce infection

2018 European urology focus Controlled trial quality: uncertain

166. Evaluation of the preventive efficacy of three dentin tubule occlusion methods against discoloration caused by triple-antibiotic paste. (Abstract)

Evaluation of the preventive efficacy of three dentin tubule occlusion methods against discoloration caused by triple-antibiotic paste. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the preventive efficacy of three dentin tubule occlusion methods against discoloration caused by triple-antibiotic paste (TAP). Sixty extracted human incisors were sectioned, and the access was opened. The specimens were randomly allocated to the following four groups (n = 15): bonding application (BD), teethmate

2018 Odontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

167. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Gynaecologic Procedures

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Gynaecologic Procedures No. 275-Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Gynaecologic Procedures - Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages e723–e733 No. 275-Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Gynaecologic Procedures x Nancy Van Eyk , MD Halifax, NS x Julie van Schalkwyk , MD Vancouver, BC No. 275, April 2012 (Reaffirmed October 2018) DOI: To view the full text, please login as a subscribed (...) user or . Click to view the full text on ScienceDirect. Abstract Objective To review the evidence and provide recommendations on antibiotic prophylaxis for gynaecologic procedures. Outcomes Outcomes evaluated include need and effectiveness of antibiotics to prevent infections in gynaecologic procedures. Evidence Medline and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between January 1978 and January 2011 on the topic of antibiotic prophylaxis in gynaecologic procedures. Results were

2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

168. Cystitis: taking an antibiotic

Cystitis: taking an antibiotic Decision aid for cystitis: taking an antibiotic © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights. Last updated November 2018 Page 1 of 2 Decision aid Cystitis: taking an antibiotic Information to help women who are not pregnant discuss the options with their healthcare professionals. Cystitis is usually caused by bacteria (germs) from your gut getting into your bladder (also called lower urinary tract infection, UTI). Sometimes symptoms get better (...) by themselves, but many people will need antibiotic treatment. What are the options? It’s not always clear when an antibiotic is needed so, for some women with cystitis, NICE recommends that you could either: ? start taking an antibiotic straightaway, or ? wait, and see if your symptoms start to get better by themselves. If they don’t get better within 48 hours, or get worse at any time, you should start taking the antibiotic. You can choose whether to wait and see if your symptoms improve on their own

2018 Health Information and Quality Authority

169. Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia?

Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? – Clinical Correlations Search Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? January 16, 2018 6 min read By Calvin Ngai, MD Peer Reviewed A 71-year-old Caucasian woman with hypertension presented with a 2-day history of productive cough and fever. She was living (...) alone and had no history of any recent hospitalizations. On examination, she was alert and oriented but slightly tachypneic; her lungs were clear to auscultation bilaterally. Laboratory tests were significant for a white blood cell count of 18,000 m L with 89% neutrophils. The chest x-ray showed a right lower lobe infiltrate. She was admitted and started on antibiotics for treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). She improved clinically, and after remaining afebrile for 48 hours, she

2018 Clinical Correlations

170. Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics?

’ defined by using the clinical breakpoints for resistance as specified by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing (EUCAST) or the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CSLI). 2. Increase in the incidence (rate) of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria established through the use of chlorhexidine identifying dosage form, exposure and specific population and / or setting. Antibiotic-resistant strain of bacteria through the use of chlorhexidine to be recorded. 3. Increases (...) to chlorhexidine in a specific population and / or setting. To address the question ‘Does exposure (different dosages, duration of use, and stratification of exposure) to any form of chlorhexidine increases the incidence and/or prevalence of antibiotic- resistant strains of bacteria in any person within different healthcare settings? ’ the outcomes included: ? ‘Resistance against antibiotics’ defined by using the clinical breakpoints for resistance as specified by the European Committee on Antimicrobial

2018 National Health and Medical Research Council

171. Antibiotics after incision and drainage for uncomplicated skin abscesses Full Text available with Trip Pro

of adverse effects including nausea and diarrhoea We suggest TMP-SMX rather than clindamycin because TMP-SMX has a lower risk of diarrhoea Cephalosporins in addition to incision and drainage are probably not more effective than incision and drainage alone in most settings From a societal perspective, the modest benefits from adjuvant antibiotics may not outweigh the harms from increased antimicrobial resistance in the community, although this is speculative Box 1 Linked articles in this BMJ Rapid (...) are likely to prefer TMP-SMX. Person-centred versus societal perspective (impact on antibiotic resistance) The recommendations explicitly take a person-centred perspective rather than a public health or societal perspective. The use of antibiotics is associated with the emergence of antibiotic resistance within the community and may increase the risk of antibiotic resistant infections in community members. The increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance are a public health priority. From a societal

2018 BMJ Rapid Recommendations

172. Primary care: Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia in older adults compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs

Primary care: Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia in older adults compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia in older adults compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser (...) injury and hyperkalaemia in older adults compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs Article Text Commentary Primary care Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia in older adults compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs Oghenekome Gbinigie Statistics from Altmetric.com Commentary on : Crellin E, Mansfield KE, Leyrat C, et al . Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study. BMJ

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine

176. General medicine: Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections

General medicine: Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using (...) your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections Article Text Commentary General

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine

177. Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections Following Removal of Orthopedic Implants Used for Treatment of Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections Following Removal of Orthopedic Implants Used for Treatment of Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Following clean (class I, not contaminated) surgical procedures, the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) should be less than approximately 2%. However, an infection rate of 12.2% has been reported following removal of orthopedic implants used for treatment of fractures below the knee.To evaluate (...) the effect of a single dose of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis on the incidence of SSIs following removal of orthopedic implants used for treatment of fractures below the knee.Multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial including 500 patients aged 18 to 75 years with previous surgical treatment for fractures below the knee who were undergoing removal of orthopedic implants from 19 hospitals (17 teaching and 2 academic) in the Netherlands (November 2014-September 2016), with a follow-up of 6

2017 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

178. Association of Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics With Treatment Failure, Adverse Events, and Quality of Life in Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics With Treatment Failure, Adverse Events, and Quality of Life in Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections. Acute respiratory tract infections account for the majority of antibiotic exposure in children, and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections is increasing. It is not clear whether broad-spectrum treatment is associated with improved outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum treatment.To compare (...) the effectiveness of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment for acute respiratory tract infections in children.A retrospective cohort study assessing clinical outcomes and a prospective cohort study assessing patient-centered outcomes of children between the ages of 6 months and 12 years diagnosed with an acute respiratory tract infection and prescribed an oral antibiotic between January 2015 and April 2016 in a network of 31 pediatric primary care practices in Pennsylvania and New Jersey

2017 JAMA

179. The rumen microbiome: an underexplored resource for novel antimicrobial discovery Full Text available with Trip Pro

The rumen microbiome: an underexplored resource for novel antimicrobial discovery Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drug candidates to target multi-drug resistant bacteria. The rumen microbiome presents an underexplored resource for the discovery of novel microbial enzymes and metabolites, including AMPs. Using functional screening and computational approaches, we identified 181 potentially novel AMPs from a rumen bacterial metagenome. Here, we show that three of the selected AMPs (...) in bacterial counts, which was comparable to treatment with 2% mupirocin ointment. Our findings indicate that the rumen microbiome may provide viable alternative antimicrobials for future therapeutic application.

2017 NPJ biofilms and microbiomes

180. Efficacy of Preoperative Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Crohn Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Abstract)

Efficacy of Preoperative Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Crohn Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial We investigated the efficacy of oral antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing surgery for Crohn disease.Although oral antibiotic prophylaxis with mechanical bowel preparation has been recommended for colorectal surgery, the use of this approach remains somewhat controversial. Moreover, the efficacy of this approach (...) A (12/163; 7.4%) than in group B (27/162; 16.6%) (P = 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, the absence of oral antibiotic prophylaxis was an independent risk factor for incisional SSI (odds ratio: 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-8.3; P = 0.01).Combined oral and intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients with Crohn disease contributed to the prevention of SSI.

2017 EvidenceUpdates