Latest & greatest articles for penicillin

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Top results for penicillin

41. Oral pristinamycin versus standard penicillin regimen to treat erysipelas in adults: randomised, non-inferiority, open trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral pristinamycin versus standard penicillin regimen to treat erysipelas in adults: randomised, non-inferiority, open trial. To assess the efficacy and safety of oral pristinamycin versus intravenous then oral penicillin to treat erysipelas in patients in hospital.Multicentre, parallel group, open labelled, randomised non-inferiority trial.22 French hospitals.289 adults admitted to hospital with erysipelas.At follow up (day 25-45) the cure rate (primary efficacy end point) for the per protocol (...) populations was 81% (83/102) for pristinamycin and 67% (68/102) for penicillin. The planned interim analysis (global one sided type I error 5%) showed that the one sided 97.06% confidence interval of the observed difference (pristinamycin-penicillin) between cure rates (3.3% to infinity ) exceeded the -10% non-inferiority threshold. For the intention to treat populations the cure rate at follow up was 65% (90/138) for pristinamycin and 53% (79/150) for penicillin, with the one sided 97.06% confidence

2002 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

42. Penicillin for acute sore throat: randomised double blind trial of seven days versus three days treatment or placebo in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Penicillin for acute sore throat: randomised double blind trial of seven days versus three days treatment or placebo in adults. To assess whether treatment with penicillin for three days and the traditional treatment for seven days were equally as effective at accelerating resolution of symptoms in patients with sore throat compared with placebo.Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.43 family practices in the Netherlands.561 patients, aged 15-60 years, with sore throat for less than (...) seven days and at least three of the four Centor criteria-that is, history of fever, absence of cough, swollen tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, and tonsillar exudate. 142 patients were excluded for medical reasons and 73 needed penicillin.Patients were randomly assigned to penicillin V for seven days, penicillin V for three days followed by placebo for four days, or placebo for seven days.Resolution of symptoms in the first week, eradication of bacteria after two weeks, and recurrences of sore

2000 BMJ Controlled trial quality: predicted high

43. Treatment of pneumonia with penicillins: oral or intravenous?

Treatment of pneumonia with penicillins: oral or intravenous? Penicillinbehandling ved pneumoni: oralt eller intravenøst? [Treatment of pneumonia with penicillins: oral or intravenous?] Penicillinbehandling ved pneumoni: oralt eller intravenøst? [Treatment of pneumonia with penicillins: oral or intravenous?] Danish Centre for Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation (...) of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Danish Centre for Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment. Penicillinbehandling ved pneumoni: oralt eller intravenøst? [Treatment of pneumonia with penicillins: oral or intravenous?] Copenhagen: Danish Centre for Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment (DACEHTA). 2000 Authors' objectives The aim of this report is to consider the implications of giving penicillin by oral or intravenous administration to patients

2000 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

44. Interferon alfa-2b, colchicine, and benzathine penicillin versus colchicine and benzathine penicillin in Behçet's disease: a randomised trial. (Abstract)

Interferon alfa-2b, colchicine, and benzathine penicillin versus colchicine and benzathine penicillin in Behçet's disease: a randomised trial. Sight-threatening eye involvement is a serious complication of Behçet's disease. Extraocular complications such as arthritis, vascular occlusive disorders, mucocutaneous lesions, and central-nervous-system disease may lead to morbidity and even death. We designed a prospective study in newly diagnosed patients without previous eye disease to assess (...) whether prevention of eye involvement and extraocular manifestations, and preservation of visual acuity are possible with combination treatments with and without interferon alfa-2b.Patients were randomly assigned 3 million units interferon alfa-2b subcutaneously every other day for the first 6 months plus 1.5 mg colchicine orally daily and 1.2 million units benzathine penicillin intramuscularly every 3 weeks (n=67), or colchicine and benzathine penicillin alone (n=68). The primary endpoint was visual

2000 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

45. The impact of dosing frequency on the efficacy of 10-day penicillin or amoxicillin therapy for streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis: a meta-analysis

The impact of dosing frequency on the efficacy of 10-day penicillin or amoxicillin therapy for streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis: a meta-analysis The impact of dosing frequency on the efficacy of 10-day penicillin or amoxicillin therapy for streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis: a meta-analysis The impact of dosing frequency on the efficacy of 10-day penicillin or amoxicillin therapy for streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis: a meta-analysis Lan A J, Colford J M Authors' objectives To compare cure (...) rates between once- or twice-daily (s.i.d. and b.i.d., respectively) and more frequent dosing schedules in the treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. Searching MEDLINE and Dissertation Abstracts were searched to August 1998. For MEDLINE, the keywords were 'tonsillopharyngitis', 'pharyngitis', 'penicillin', 'amoxicillin' and 'clinical trials. For Dissertation Abstracts, combinations of the following words were used: 'streptococcus' or 'streptococcal' and 'penicillin' or 'amoxicillin

2000 DARE.

46. Questionable history of immediate-type hypersensitivity to penicillin in Staphylococcal endocarditis: treatment based on skin-test results versus empirical alternative treatment - a decision analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Questionable history of immediate-type hypersensitivity to penicillin in Staphylococcal endocarditis: treatment based on skin-test results versus empirical alternative treatment - a decision analysis Questionable history of immediate-type hypersensitivity to penicillin in Staphylococcal endocarditis: treatment based on skin-test results versus empirical alternative treatment - a decision analysis Questionable history of immediate-type hypersensitivity to penicillin in Staphylococcal (...) results was compared with empirical treatment (no skin testing) in patients who had infective endocarditis (Staphylococcus aureus), susceptible to cloxacillin, and who had a questionable history of immediate-type hypersensitivity to penicillin. Type of intervention Screening. Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population The study population comprised a hypothetical cohort of patients with infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus that was susceptible to cloxacillin and who had

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

47. Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes

Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Macy E Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED (...) . Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Elective penicillin skin testing (PenSTs) in advance of acute antibiotic need and (optional) amoxicillin challenge (AC) in patients with negative skin test responses. Patients were previously entered in a study of new penicillin reagents and received at least 1 prescription drug over a 2-year period

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

48. Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures

Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Heit J M, Stevens M R, Jeffords K Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Ceftriaxone and penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fracture. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Male and female patients with compound mandible fractures. Setting Hospital. The economic study was carried out in Miami, Florida, USA. Dates to which

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

49. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of penicillin V and amoxycillin in treatment of acute sinus infections in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of penicillin V and amoxycillin in treatment of acute sinus infections in adults. To compare the effectiveness of penicillin V and amoxycillin with placebo in treatment of adult patients with acute sinusitis.Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.Norwegian general practice.130 adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute sinusitis confirmed by computed tomography.Subjective status after three and 10 days of treatment (...) , difference in clinical severity score between day 0 and day 10 as evaluated by the general practitioner, difference in score from computed tomography on day 0 and day 10, and duration of sinusitis.Amoxycillin and penicillin V led to significantly faster and better recovery than placebo. By day 10, 71 patients receiving antibiotic treatment- (86%) considered themselves to be recovered or much better compared with 25 (57%) receiving placebo. The mean (95% confidence interval) reductions in clinical

1996 BMJ Controlled trial quality: predicted high

50. Reduction of fever and streptococcal bacteremia in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. A trial of oral penicillin V or placebo combined with pefloxacin. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and (Abstract)

Reduction of fever and streptococcal bacteremia in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. A trial of oral penicillin V or placebo combined with pefloxacin. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and To determine the effect of oral penicillin V combined with a fluoroquinolone (pefloxacin) on the occurrence of fever and streptococcal and other gram-positive coccal bacteremic infections in granulocytopenic patients with cancer.Prospective (...) randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled prophylactic trial.Inpatient setting in multiple cooperating cancer centers.Convenience sample with a total of 551 granulocytopenic patients, 95% of whom had leukemia or underwent bone marrow transplantation.Penicillin V (500 mg twice a day) vs placebo given in combination with oral pefloxacin (400 mg twice a day).Occurrence of fever and/or infection.Fever or infection (without fever) developed in 190 (71%) of 268 evaluable patients in the penicillin arm

1994 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

51. Placebo-controlled trial of intravenous penicillin for severe and late leptospirosis. (Abstract)

Placebo-controlled trial of intravenous penicillin for severe and late leptospirosis. The effect of a 7-day course of intravenous penicillin (6 million units/day) on severe, advanced leptospirosis was examined in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial involving 42 patients. Every measurable aspect of the disease was favourably affected by penicillin. Fever lasted more than twice as long in the placebo group (11.6 [SD 8.34] days vs 4.7 [4.19] days, p less than 0.005 (...) ), and by the fourth day after starting penicillin more than half the treatment group, but only 1 of 19 in the placebo group, were afebrile (p less than 0.005). Creatinine rises persisted more than thrice as long in the patients receiving only placebo (8.3 [8.46] days vs 2.7 [1.90] days; p less than 0.01). Penicillin also shortened the hospital stay and prevented leptospiruria. Intravenous penicillin should be given to patients with severe leptospirosis, even if therapy can be begun only late in the course

1988 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

52. Treatment of late Lyme borreliosis--randomised comparison of ceftriaxone and penicillin. (Abstract)

Treatment of late Lyme borreliosis--randomised comparison of ceftriaxone and penicillin. 23 patients with clinically active late Lyme disease were randomly assigned to intravenous treatment with either penicillin or ceftriaxone. Of the 10 treated with penicillin, 5 were judged treatment failures; of the 13 who received ceftriaxone, only 1 did not respond. An additional 31 patients were subsequently treated with ceftriaxone 4 g/day (n = 17) or 2 g/day (n = 14); success rates in both groups were

1988 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

53. Trial of co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin with ampicillin in treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in young Gambian children. (Abstract)

Trial of co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin with ampicillin in treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in young Gambian children. 134 Gambian children under 5 years of age with severe pneumonia (as defined by the World Health Organisation classification of acute respiratory infections) were given either oral co-trimoxazole for 5 days, or a single intramuscular dose of fortified procaine penicillin and 5 days of oral ampicillin. At 2 weeks, there was no significant difference in outcome (...) between the two groups. Co-trimoxazole is much less expensive than ampicillin or procaine penicillin, requires only twice-daily administration, and can be given by health-care staff with little training. The results support the use of co-trimoxazole as the antibiotic of first choice in outpatient management of young children with pneumonia in developing countries.

1988 Lancet

54. Prophylaxis with oral penicillin in children with sickle cell anemia. A randomized trial. (Abstract)

Prophylaxis with oral penicillin in children with sickle cell anemia. A randomized trial. Children with sickle cell anemia have an increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, especially to those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. We therefore conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to test whether the regular, daily administration of oral penicillin would reduce the incidence of documented septicemia due to S.pneumoniae in children with sickle (...) cell anemia who were under the age of three years at the time of entry. The children were randomly assigned to receive either 125 mg of penicillin V potassium (105 children) or placebo (110 children) twice daily. The trial was terminated 8 months early, after an average of 15 months of follow-up, when an 84 percent reduction in the incidence of infection was observed in the group treated with penicillin, as compared with the group given placebo (13 of 110 patients vs. 2 of 105; P = 0.0025

1986 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

55. Streptococcal pharyngitis. Placebo-controlled double-blind evaluation of clinical response to penicillin therapy. (Abstract)

Streptococcal pharyngitis. Placebo-controlled double-blind evaluation of clinical response to penicillin therapy. Forty-four children with a clinical diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis had throat cultures performed at the initial evaluation and were assigned by randomization to receive either oral penicillin or a placebo for 72 hours. The treating physician, who remained blind to the treatment regimen, recorded the child's temperature and assessed the presence and severity of other signs (...) and symptoms initially and at 24, 48, and 72 hours. The throat culture was positive for group A beta-hemolytic streptococci in 26 (59%) of the initial study group, and most of these children developed a fourfold or greater titer rise in antistreptococcal antibodies in their serum, confirming the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis. Statistically significant clinical improvement was observed in the group of 11 children who were later shown to have been taking penicillin compared with the group of 15 who

1985 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

56. Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for bacterial meningitis in children. (Abstract)

Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for bacterial meningitis in children. 367 children with cerebrospinal-fluid findings suggestive of bacterial meningitis were randomised to receive either chloramphenicol alone by intramuscular injection, or chloramphenicol plus penicillin by intravenous injection. Sequential analysis showed no difference in mortality between the two treatments. 48 (26%) of the 183 children in the chloramphenicol alone group died, and 49 (27 (...) %) of the 184 children in the chloramphenicol plus penicillin group died. In children with bacterial meningitis chloramphenicol alone given by intramuscular injection is as effective as chloramphenicol plus penicillin given intravenously.

1985 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

57. Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for severe pneumonia in children. (Abstract)

Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for severe pneumonia in children. 748 children with severe pneumonia in three hospitals in Papua New Guinea were randomised to receive intramuscular injections of either chloramphenicol alone or chloramphenicol plus penicillin. Sequential analysis showed no difference between the two treatments. 48 (13%) of the 377 children in the chloramphenicol alone group died, and 3 (0.8%) were changed to different treatment. 62 (17%) of the 371 (...) children in the chloramphenicol-plus-penicillin group died, and 6 (1.6%) were changed to different treatment. The difference in failure rates (death or withdrawal for change of treatment) was 4.8% +/- 5.2% (+/- 95% confidence limits). In children with severe pneumonia, treatment with chloramphenicol alone is as effective as treatment with chloramphenicol plus penicillin.

1985 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

58. Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease. (Abstract)

Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease. We studied the effect of penicillin on early-onset Group B streptococcal disease over a 52-month period in neonates who were at high risk of infection. Shortly after birth, 1187 neonates weighing 2000 g or less had blood samples taken for cultures and were randomized into an early-treatment group (given intramuscular penicillin G within 60 minutes of birth) or a control group. The incidence (...) . At autopsy, gram-positive cocci were seen in lung sections of four infants in whom cultures of blood obtained after treatment had been sterile; this indicates that giving routine antibiotic therapy before culture samples are obtained can obscure bacteriologic diagnosis. We conclude that penicillin given at birth to neonates weighing 2000 g or less does not prevent early-onset streptococcal disease or reduce excess mortality associated with disease.

1983 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

59. Single-dose penicillin prophylaxis of neonatal group-B-streptococcal disease. (Abstract)

Single-dose penicillin prophylaxis of neonatal group-B-streptococcal disease. The efficacy of a single dose of aqueous penicillin G in preventing neonatal group-B streptococcal infections was demonstrated in a randomised study conducted over 41 months. 16 082 infant received a single dose of penicillin within one hour of delivery, and 15 976 infants who received tetracycline ophthalmic ointment served as the control group. Group-B streptococcal systemic infections were significantly less (...) common in the penicillin-treated infants (0.6 vs 1.7 cases per 100 live birth, p = 0.004). The incidence of infection caused by penicillin-resistant pathogen was insignificantly increased in the penicillin group (2.2 vs 1.6 cases per thousand live birth, p = 0.32). this difference was accounted for almost completely by the events of the first 12 months of the study period when, for unexplained reasons, there was a considerable increase in the number of penicillin-resistant infections

1982 Lancet

60. Penicillin V for group A streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. A randomized trial of seven vs ten days' therapy. (Abstract)

Penicillin V for group A streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. A randomized trial of seven vs ten days' therapy. The effect of duration of orally administered penicillin V potassium on the bacteriologic and clinical cure of group A streptococcal pharyngitis was evaluated. One hundred ninety-one middle-class patients received either seven days (96 patients) or ten days (95 patients) of therapy. Compliance with taking penicillin was assessed by multiple methods, including penicillinuria. Throat (...) cultures were obtained during therapy and three times in the three weeks after therapy. M-precipitin and T-agglutinin typing were done on paired isolates of group A streptococci from patients who had recurrences. Patients treated for seven days had a significantly greater failure rate (30/96 [31%]) compared with patients receiving ten days of penicillin (17/95 [18%]). Compliance rates were high; 66% to 81% of patients showed penicillinuria throughout the study period. Treatment failure

1981 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain