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Latest & greatest articles for penicillin
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Gonococcal tenosynovitis-dermatitis and septic arthritis. Intravenous penicillin vs oral erythromycin. Twenty-three patients with disseminated gonococcal infections--15 with acute tenosynovitis, six with septic monoarticular arthritis, and two with both--were randomly given five days of erythromycin stearate or estolate, 500 mg orally every six hours (13 patients), or crystalline aqueous penicillin G potassium, 1 million units intravenously every three hours for three days (ten patients (...) ). There were no treatment failures. Cultures taken one and seven days and two and four weeks after completion of therapy were uniformly negative. Clinical resolution was rapid in both groups, as judged by response of fever, joint tenderness, and disappearance of joint effusion. Orally administered erythromycin is a useful alternative to penicillin in the treatment of disseminated gonococcal infections, particularly in penicillin-allergic pregnant women.
Single-dose penicillin prophylaxis against neonatal group B streptococcal infections. A controlled trial in 18,738 newborn infants. Neonatal Group B streptococcal infections may not respond to antimicrobial therapy and have been associated with case fatality rates of 50 per cent or greater. We evaluated the effect on colonization and disease rates of a single intramuscular dose of aqueous penicillin G given at birth in a prospectively controlled study of 18,738 neonates during a 25-month period (...) . The colonization rate in the mothers was 26.6 per cent, with 50 per cent concordance in the untreated infants and 12.2 per cent in the penicillin-treated infants (P < 0.001). There was a significant decrease in the incidence of disease caused by all penicillin-susceptible organisms in the penicillin group (0.64 vs. 2.26 cases per thousand live births, P = 0.005). Disease caused by penicillin-resistant pathogens was increased in the penicillin-treated group during the first year of the study but was unaffected
Cefazolin vs penicillin. Treatment of uncomplicated pneumococcal pneumonia. Cefazolin sodium, 500 mg intramuscularly twice daily, was compared with penicillin G procaine, 600,000 units intramuscularly twice daily, in the treatment of 82 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned except when there was a history of penicillin allergy. The patients received treatment for five days or until they were afebrile for 48 hours. No patients experienced side effects or allergic (...) reactions. All patients recovered satisfactorily without relapses. Cefazolin in the previously described dosage is as effective as penicillin in the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia.
Prophylaxis of streptococcal infections and rheumatic fever: a comparison of orally administered clindamycin and penicillin. Orally administered clindamycin and penicillin were compared for effectiveness in preventing streptococcal infections in 202 randomly assigned patients with previous rheumatic fever (RF). Among 143 patients aged 21 years or younger observed for 537 patient-years, the number of streptococcal infections (and number per patient-year) was 23 (0.084) in the penicillin group (...) and 12 (0.045) in the clindamycin group. Excluding uncooperative patients, the rate of streptococcal infection remained less, though not statistically significant, in the clindamycin group than in the penicillin group. Two RF recurrences occurred in the penicillin group, and no recurrence occurred in the clindamycin group. Clindamycin was well tolerated except for possible mild gastrointestinal symptoms in six patients. Clindamycin can be substituted for penicillin for RF prophylaxis when
A pharmacologic evaluation of penicillin in children with purulent meningitis. We undertook a prospective study of the pharmacokinetics of penicillin G (administered intravenously every four hours for a total of b50,000 U per kilogram per day) in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with purulent meningitis. Both the absolute mean cerebrospinal-fluid penicillin concentration (0.8, 0.7 and 0.3 microgram per milliliter) and the percentage of the simultaneous serum penicillin concentration (...) measurable in the cerebrospinal fluid (18.4, 9.9, 4.9 per cent) declined on the first, fifth and 10th days of therapy, respectively. A mean peak cerebrospinal-fluid penicillin concentration of 0.96 micrograms per milliliter was measured at least transiently on all three study days. This pharmacokinetic pattern correlated with the return of cerebrospinal-fluid protein concentration toward normal (P less than 0.01). Penicillin G in the dosage studied is adequate therapy for most streptococcal
Low dose penicillin for gonococcal arthritis. A comparative therapy trial. Sixty-three patients with gonococcal arthritis completed a double-blind randomized penicillin therapy trial comparing a low dose regimen (procaine penicillin G, 600,000 units intramuscularly, given every 12 hours for up to ten days) with a high dose (the same procaine penicillin regimen and intravenous aqueous penicillin G, 10 million units daily, for the first three days). Pretherapy features were similar in the 36 (...) patients allocated to low-dose vs the 27 to high-dose therapy. All patients had definite improvement within 48 hours of the initiation of either regimen. No therapeutic response variable studied differed significantly between the groups. Thus, no additional therapeutic benefit accrued from the high doses of penicillin. The absence of complications or failures in either treatment group indicate that gonococcal arthritis is ordinarily quite responsive to low doses of penicillin given intramuscularly
Streptococcal pharyngitis in children. A comparison of four treatment schedules with intramuscular penicillin G benzathine. Four hundred children with streptococcal pharyngitis were treated randomly with single injections in groups of 100 each (1) with 600,000 units of penicillin G benzathine, (2) 1.2 million units of penicillin G benzathine, (3) 600,000 units of penicillin G benzathine and 600,000 units of penicillin G procaine, or (4) 900,000 units of penicillin G benzathine and 300,000 units (...) of penicillin G procaine. Clinical response and severity of local reaction were judged in a double-blind manner at 24, 48, and 72 hours; throat cultures were taken then, and at 10, 21, and 42 days. Although the clinical response to 900,000 units of penicillin G benzathine and 300,000 units of penicillin G procaine was equal to 1.2 million units of penicillin G benzathine, the former cleared the streptococci more quickly, greatly reduced the incidence and severity of local reactions, and offered optimal
Treatment of diphtheria carriers: benzathine penicillin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. 4215352 1975 02 06 2013 11 21 0003-4819 81 6 1974 Dec Annals of internal medicine Ann. Intern. Med. Treatment of diphtheria carriers: benzathine penicillin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. 788-91 McCloskey R V RV Green M J MJ Eller J J Smilack J J eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States Ann Intern Med 0372351 0003-4819 3U02EL437C Clindamycin 63937KV33D (...) Erythromycin RIT82F58GK Penicillin G Benzathine AIM IM Administration, Oral Bacteriological Techniques Carrier State drug therapy Child, Preschool Clindamycin administration & dosage therapeutic use Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolation & purification Diphtheria drug therapy Drug Evaluation Erythromycin administration & dosage therapeutic use Humans Infant Injections, Intramuscular Microbial Sensitivity Tests Nasal Mucosa microbiology Penicillin G Benzathine administration & dosage therapeutic use Pharynx
Erythromycin therapy twice daily for streptococcal pharyngitis. Controlled comparison with erythromycin or penicillin phenoxymethyl four times daily or penicillin G benzathine. 4200875 1973 12 16 2016 10 17 0098-7484 226 5 1973 Oct 29 JAMA JAMA Erythromycin therapy twice daily for streptococcal pharyngitis. Controlled comparison with erythromycin or penicillin phenoxymethyl four times daily or penicillin G benzathine. 531-5 Shapera R M RM Hable K A KA Matsen J M JM eng Clinical Trial (...) Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 63937KV33D Erythromycin RIT82F58GK Penicillin G Benzathine Z61I075U2W Penicillin V AIM IM Administration, Oral Adolescent Adult Age Factors Anti-Bacterial Agents pharmacology Child Child, Preschool Clinical Trials as Topic Erythromycin administration & dosage therapeutic use Follow-Up Studies Humans Infant Injections, Intramuscular Penicillin G Benzathine administration & dosage
Penicillin treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. A comparison of schedules and the role of specific counseling. 4627811 1972 12 14 2016 10 17 0098-7484 222 6 1972 Nov 06 JAMA JAMA Penicillin treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. A comparison of schedules and the role of specific counseling. 657-9 Colcher I S IS Bass J W JW eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 0 Penicillins 17R794ESYN Penicillin G Procaine (...) RIT82F58GK Penicillin G Benzathine Z61I075U2W Penicillin V AIM IM Acute Disease Administration, Oral Adolescent Child Child, Preschool Counseling Female Humans Infant Injections, Intramuscular Male Penicillin G Benzathine administration & dosage Penicillin G Procaine administration & dosage Penicillin V administration & dosage therapeutic use Penicillins pharmacology therapeutic use Pharyngitis drug therapy Recurrence Sarcina drug effects Streptococcal Infections drug therapy Time Factors 1972 11 6 1972
Spectinomycin and penicillin G in the treatment of gonorrhea. A comparative evaluation. 4258564 1972 05 02 2016 10 17 0098-7484 220 2 1972 Apr 10 JAMA JAMA Spectinomycin and penicillin G in the treatment of gonorrhea. A comparative evaluation. 205-8 Pedersen A H AH Wiesner P J PJ Holmes K K KK Johnson C J CJ Turck M M eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 0 Antibiotics, Antineoplastic 17R794ESYN Penicillin G (...) Procaine 93AKI1U6QF Spectinomycin AIM IM Antibiotics, Antineoplastic therapeutic use Female Gonorrhea drug therapy Humans Male Neisseria gonorrhoeae drug effects Penicillin G Procaine administration & dosage therapeutic use Penicillin Resistance Spectinomycin administration & dosage adverse effects therapeutic use 1972 4 10 1972 4 10 0 1 1972 4 10 0 0 ppublish 4258564
Prophylaxis of recurrent rheumatic fever. Therapeutic-continuous oral penicillin vs monthly injections. 5695575 1968 11 01 2016 10 17 0098-7484 206 3 1968 Oct 14 JAMA JAMA Prophylaxis of recurrent rheumatic fever. Therapeutic-continuous oral penicillin vs monthly injections. 565-8 Feinstein A R AR Spagnuolo M M Jonas S S Kloth H H Tursky E E Levitt M M eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 Q42T66VG0C Penicillin G (...) RIT82F58GK Penicillin G Benzathine AIM IM Adolescent Child Child, Preschool Humans Injections, Intramuscular New York City Penicillin G administration & dosage Penicillin G Benzathine administration & dosage Rheumatic Fever epidemiology prevention & control Streptococcal Infections epidemiology 1968 10 14 1968 10 14 0 1 1968 10 14 0 0 ppublish 5695575