Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin

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Top results for phenytoin

1. Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (Abstract)

Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2001, and last updated in 2013. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals (...) with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, particularly in the developing world, phenytoin and phenobarbitone are commonly used antiepileptic drugs, primarily because they are inexpensive. The aim of this review is to summarise data from existing trials comparing phenytoin and phenobarbitone.To review the time to treatment failure, remission and first seizure

2019 Cochrane

2. Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (Abstract)

Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2017. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals (...) with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, carbamazepine and phenytoin are commonly-used broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs, suitable for most epileptic seizure types. Carbamazepine is a current first-line treatment for focal onset seizures in the USA and Europe. Phenytoin is no longer considered a first-line treatment, due to concerns over adverse events

2019 Cochrane

3. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus (EcLiPSE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus (EcLiPSE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Phenytoin is the recommended second-line intravenous anticonvulsant for treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus in the UK; however, some evidence suggests that levetiracetam could be an effective and safer alternative. This trial compared the efficacy and safety of phenytoin and levetiracetam for second-line management (...) of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.This open-label, randomised clinical trial was undertaken at 30 UK emergency departments at secondary and tertiary care centres. Participants aged 6 months to under 18 years, with convulsive status epilepticus requiring second-line treatment, were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated randomisation schedule to receive levetiracetam (40 mg/kg over 5 min) or phenytoin (20 mg/kg over at least 20 min), stratified by centre. The primary outcome was time

2019 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

4. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. (Abstract)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Phenytoin is the current standard of care for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus after failure of first-line benzodiazepines, but is only effective in 60% of cases and is associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, can be given more quickly, is potentially (...) more efficacious, and has a more tolerable adverse effect profile. We aimed to determine whether phenytoin or levetiracetam is the superior second-line treatment for paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.ConSEPT was an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial conducted in 13 emergency departments in Australia and New Zealand. Children aged between 3 months and 16 years, with convulsive status epilepticus that failed first-line benzodiazepine treatment, were randomly assigned (1:1

2019 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

5. Phenytoin

Phenytoin Top results for phenytoin - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Turning Research Into Practice ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 (...) or #4) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

9. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis during and early after craniotomy for brain tumours: a phase II prospective, randomised study (Abstract)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis during and early after craniotomy for brain tumours: a phase II prospective, randomised study Phenytoin (PHT) is routinely used for seizure prophylaxis in patients with brain tumours during and after craniotomy, despite incomplete evidence. We performed a prospective, randomised study to investigate the significance of prophylactic use of levetiracetam (LEV), in comparison with PHT, for patients with supratentorial tumours

2015 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10. Genetic variants associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetic variants associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. The antiepileptic drug phenytoin can cause cutaneous adverse reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse reactions, which include drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The pharmacogenomic basis of phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions remains unknown.To investigate the genetic factors (...) associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions.Case-control study conducted in 2002-2014 among 105 cases with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions (n=61 Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and n=44 drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms), 78 cases with maculopapular exanthema, 130 phenytoin-tolerant control participants, and 3655 population controls from Taiwan, Japan, and Malaysia. A genome-wide association study (GWAS), direct

2014 JAMA

11. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP2C9 and HLA-B Genotype and Phenytoin Dosing

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP2C9 and HLA-B Genotype and Phenytoin Dosing CPIC GuIdelInes nature publishing group Phenytoin is a widely used antiepileptic drug with a narrow therapeutic index and large interpatient variability, partly due to genetic variations in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 (CYP2C9). Furthermore, the variant allele HLA- B*15:02, encoding human leukocyte antigen, is associated with an increased risk of Stevens–Johnson (...) syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in response to phenytoin treatment. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting these associations and provide recommendations for the use of phenytoin based on CYP2C9 and/or HLA-B genotype (also available on PharmGKB: http://www.pharmgkb.org). The purpose of this guideline is to provide information for the interpretation of HLA-B and/or CYP2C9 genotype tests so that the results can guide dosing and/or use of phenytoin. Detailed guidelines

2014 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium

12. Requirement for cardiac telemetry during intravenous phenytoin infusion: guideline fact or fiction? (Abstract)

Requirement for cardiac telemetry during intravenous phenytoin infusion: guideline fact or fiction? Guidelines recommend the use of cardiac telemetry when phenytoin is administered intravenously. Clinical areas where telemetry is available may not always be the most suitable place to monitor and treat these sick patients. We sought to clarify the evidence regarding the need for cardiac telemetry during intravenous infusion of phenytoin.© 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal

2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

13. Precision, Bias, and Clinical Utility of the Sheiner-Tozer Equation to Guide Phenytoin Dosing in Critically Ill Adults (Abstract)

Precision, Bias, and Clinical Utility of the Sheiner-Tozer Equation to Guide Phenytoin Dosing in Critically Ill Adults 23436385 2013 10 17 2013 11 21 1552-4604 53 4 2013 Apr Journal of clinical pharmacology J Clin Pharmacol Precision, bias, and clinical utility of the Sheiner-Tozer equation to guide phenytoin dosing in critically ill adults. 451-5 10.1002/jcph.27 Bolt Jennifer J Pharmacy Services, Interior Health Authority, #200-1835 Gordon Dr., Kelowna, BC V1Y3H5. Gorman Sean K SK eng Journal (...) Article Review 2013 02 22 England J Clin Pharmacol 0366372 0091-2700 0 Anticonvulsants 6158TKW0C5 Phenytoin IM Adult Algorithms Anticonvulsants administration & dosage pharmacokinetics Critical Illness Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Humans Phenytoin administration & dosage pharmacokinetics 2011 12 08 2012 07 15 2013 2 26 6 0 2013 2 26 6 0 2013 10 18 6 0 ppublish 23436385 10.1002/jcph.27

2013 EvidenceUpdates

14. A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury Pieracci FM, Moore EE, Beauchamp K, Tebockhorst S, Barnett CC, Bensard DD, Burlew CC, Biffl WL, Stoval RT (...) , Johnson JL Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. CRD summary This study examined the clinical and economic impact of levetiracetam, compared with phenytoin, to prevent early seizures after traumatic brain injury. The authors concluded

2013 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

15. Phenytoin for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Phenytoin for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Antiepileptic drugs have been used in pain management since the 1960s; some have shown efficacy in treating different neuropathic pain conditions. Phenytoin is an established antiepileptic drug that has been used occasionally to treat intractable trigeminal neuralgia.To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of the antiepileptic drug phenytoin in neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.We searched the Cochrane Central Register (...) of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE, and EMBASE to 28 February 2012, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov.We planned to include randomised, double-blind studies of eight weeks duration or longer, comparing phenytoin with placebo or another active treatment in chronic neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia.Two review authors would independently extract data for efficacy and adverse events, and examine issues of study

2012 Cochrane

16. Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant?

Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant? BestBets: Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant? Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant? Report By: Subramanian Ganesan, Nahin Hussain - Specialist Registrars in Paediatrics Institution: Department of Paediatric Neurology, University (...) products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and the UK Commission on Human Medicines) issued an alert on the antiepileptic drug (AED) phenytoin (PHT) regarding an increased risk of Steven–Johnson syndrome (SJS) associated with the presence of the HLA-B*1502 genetic variant in patients of Asian origin. Likewise, the US Federal Drug Agency (FDA) recommended genotyping for the allele in all Asian patients before starting carbamazepine (CBZ). We wanted to explore the implications of this for our clinical practice

2011 BestBETS

17. Folic acid supplementation prevents phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in children Full Text available with Trip Pro

Folic acid supplementation prevents phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in children Gingival overgrowth is an important adverse effect of phenytoin (PHT) therapy, occurring in about half of the patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral folic acid supplementation (0.5 mg/day) for the prevention of PHT-induced gingival overgrowth (PIGO) in children with epilepsy aged 6-15 years on PHT monotherapy for 6 months.This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

2011 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

18. Phenytoin: risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with HLA-B*1502 allele in patients of Thai or Han Chinese ethnic origin

Phenytoin: risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with HLA-B*1502 allele in patients of Thai or Han Chinese ethnic origin Phenytoin: risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with HLA-B*1502 allele in patients of Thai or Han Chinese ethnic origin - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. or Search Phenytoin: risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with HLA-B*1502 allele in patients of Thai or Han Chinese ethnic origin If patients are known to be HLA-B*1502-positive (...) , phenytoinshould be avoided when alternative therapy can be given. Published 11 December 2014 From: Therapeutic area: Contents Article date: January 2010 Phenytoin (brand leader Epanutin) is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. Phenytoin is one of the most common causes of antiepileptic-related cutaneous adverse reactions, including life-threatening Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). A recent study has shown a significant association between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA

2010 MHRA Drug Safety Update

19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of intravenous levetiracetam versus intravenous phenytoin for early onset seizure prophylaxis after neurosurgery and traumatic brain injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cost-effectiveness analysis of intravenous levetiracetam versus intravenous phenytoin for early onset seizure prophylaxis after neurosurgery and traumatic brain injury Cost-effectiveness analysis of intravenous levetiracetam versus intravenous phenytoin for early onset seizure prophylaxis after neurosurgery and traumatic brain injury Cost-effectiveness analysis of intravenous levetiracetam versus intravenous phenytoin for early onset seizure prophylaxis after neurosurgery and traumatic brain (...) injury Kazerooni R, Bounthavong M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. CRD summary This study examined the cost-effectiveness of intravenous levetiracetam, compared with conventional intravenous phenytoin, as prophylaxis against seizures

2010 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

20. Cost-effectiveness of oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin in the emergency department

Cost-effectiveness of oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin in the emergency department Cost-effectiveness of oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin in the emergency department Cost-effectiveness of oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin in the emergency department Rudis M I, Touchette D R, Swadron S P, Chiu A P, Orlinsky M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of oral phenytoin (poP), intravenous phenytoin (ivP), and intravenous fosphenytoin (ivF) for the treatment of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with seizures and sub-therapeutic phenytoin concentrations. poP was administered in increments

2004 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.